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APPENDIX 1 – Australia, And The Comparative Merits of Some Of Her Provinces - Extract of article from The Morning Post, 27 August, 1842

APPENDIX 1Australia, And The Comparative Merits of Some Of Her Provinces - Extract of article from The Morning Post, 27 August, 1842.

(from a Correspondent)

We have been favoured with the perusal of a letter written by a gentleman who has lately traversed some of this now debatable ground, on the various comparative advantages and demerits of the Sydney, Port Phillip, and Gipps’ Land districts, with a glance at Moreton Bay; and as information, unbiased, disinterested, and useful on the subject of the Australian colonies is unfortunately as rare as the converse has been but too overwhelmingly abundant, we think that we cannot do better than place the following extract before such of our readers as may find an interest in these modern leviathans of the antipodes: -

Sydney, March 30, 1842.

.. We now arrive at the last, and by far the most important district, which has yet been discovered in New Holland - I mean Gipps’ Land. The only unfortunate thing about it is its name. This noble territory extends from Cape Howe to Corner Inlet, and runs back nearly 100 miles to the Australian Alps. The soil is for the most part a chocolate loam, of an alluvial character, entirely free from even the smallest stones, gently undulating, lightly timbered, fertile to excess, yet sound enough for sheep. It is watered by many large and deep rivers, with numerous smaller streams, which, having their sources in the lofty Alps, and being fed by the never failing moisture of dissolving snows, are not, as is too often the case in other parts of Australia, mere beds of shingle, showing the occasional rush of devastating torrents. In the possession of this very important feature, a central spine, or back-bone, of stupendous elevation, Gipps’ Land, it will be observed, differs most essentially and remarkably from every other known portion of New Holland, where, in general, nature seems to have stopped prematurely short in the laborious process of up-heaval, and where the want of ranges of sufficient elevation to precipitate moisture, has cursed the country with eternal barrenness.

Count Streleskey’s [sic] observations make the altitude of Gipps’ Land chain vary between eight and ten thousand feet, snow lying on the summits during summer, while in no other part of this vast continent is there any known mountain range of one-half the height. These mountains are also, from their great elevations, quite near enough the coast to precipitate the moisture from the ocean, yet sufficiently removed to attract and draw its vapours over an extensive line of fruitful country. There is yet another, and by no means the least advantage, which the noble mountain crescent gives to the fair and wide-spread plains, that lie, as it were, sheltered in its majestic bosom and half encircled in its stupendous arms, it guards them thoroughly and effectually from the withering hot winds that, sweeping from the vast interior wilds, is as baneful as the simoon of the Arabian desert.

The numerous fine rivers from the mountains, after crossing through, and of course well watering, the extensive alluvial plains before alluded to, empty themselves into a noble fresh water lake, about thirty miles long by about ten miles wide. This fine expanse of water, with its many tributary streams, some of them navigable for miles, is fortunately in the centre of the most valuable land, and will be a means of conveying produce to within fifteen or twenty miles of Port Albert, or as it is more often, but erroneously, called, Corner Inlet, which harbour, though inferior to that of Sydney or Hobart Town, is second to none other in this part of Australia, Port Phillip not excepted. Taking into consideration all three elements of future greatness and prosperity, and speaking in a spirit of the strictest and most sober truth, I can safely affirm that there has not yet been discovered any portion of Australia so calculated to ensure a certain and large profit to the industrious agriculturist of moderate capital as Gipps’ Land, and one, at the same time, so congenial in climate and so peculiarly suited to habits and feelings of Englishmen.

The plains, by which I mean land naturally clear of timber, are numerous, yet not too extensive, well sheltered by the many river belts of noble trees, said by those who are judges of colonial timber, to be of the most valuable description for splitting and sawing, and to use the words of an old settler, who has seen all parts of the colony, "there are tens of thousands of acres in which a ploughshare might be driven for miles through the finest vegetable mould the world ever saw, without the possibility of striking against a stick or a stone." Such is Gipps’ Land, and what a country to have lain so long undiscovered, and unproductive to man! This tardy discovery is the more extraordinary, when we consider its central position, between the ports of Sydney, Hobart Town, Launceston, and Port Phillip; and it certainly does not add much to the credit of the late Home Government, that the interior of this valuable province should have been first explored by a wandering foreigner, and its harbour discovered and made available by the enterprise, and at the expense of a few stirring Port Phillipians, (who, by the bye, as a reward and as an incentive to future exertion) have since been ousted from the land they honestly bought and paid for in the neighbourhood of Port Albert.

In a week or two I am off by sea to Port Albert with supplies, to meet the overland expedition, which I some time ago dispatched with seven thousand sheep, and when I get settled in this Land of Canaan I will write again.’

APPENDIX 2 – Stories told by John King

As told by his daughter, Anna Josepha King. Written in pencil, manuscript held at State Library of Victoria in the King family papers. Transcribed by Helen Connell, December 2011. Extracts:

This is not intended as a story of my Father’s life, but some of the stories which he has told us of his own experiences which I think will show his grandchildren what manner of man he was.

His grandfather, Philip Gidley King, a naval lieutenant of Cornish family, who had been before in Australian waters, was appointed Commandant at Norfolk Island, then a penal settlement, and the story is told that when packing for his long journey, being assisted by his cousin Anna Josepha, he mentioned the fact that the authorities had suggested it would be better if he were a married man; the mention of this seems to have at once suggested to him that his cousin might possibly share his life’s work as she was then sharing his present occupation, he proposed to her, was accepted and she went with him to Norfolk Island where their son Philip Parker was born, the first white child born on the Island.

In [blank space for date] Capt Philip Gidley King was appointed governor of New South Wales, and his son Philip Parker King followed his father’s footsteps in joining the navy. Governor King had three daughters besides this son; they each became afterwards Mrs Macarthur, Runciman, & Lethbridge. Capt. Philip Parker King married a Miss Lethbridge of Launceston, Cornwall, so brother and sister married brother and sister; they had seven sons and one daughter: Philip Gidley; John, your grandfather; William Essington; Charles Macarthur, Frederic, Robert Lethbridge, Arthur Septimus, and Elizabeth, who married in England, Mr Herman Prior.

Your grandfather John King was born at Parramatta near Sydney on Jan 9th and was taken to England when very small, I think 3 years old. His parents left him there for his education with his uncle and godfather, John Lethbridge of Tregeare, Launceston, Cornwall. For some time he went to school in Launceston spending his holidays at Tregeare and the story he told of this time shows some pluck and energy for a child of 7 years old. He had gone to Tregeare for his holidays and when in the afternoon he discovered having left a precious treasure, a bag of marbles, at school, so without saying anything to anyone he walked back to Launceston, about 7 miles to get there. After a while Master John was missing causing a great deal of anxiety to his delicate Aunt (née Miss Baron) and when he at length having walked the whole way, the tired little boy was met with a punishment hardly merited. From Launceston he went to a school in Greenwich spending his holidays at his Grandmother’s house in London. This school he afterwards visited when with his family he was in England from 1862 to late in 1864 and found the same school master there. One of his amusements in this London house was running up to the top of the house, very likely 3 storeys and from there sliding down the fire escape, a long narrow canvass bag which hung outside, and I can remember him describing the hesitation to “let go” and the sort of thrill which the last part of the run gave. It must have been at this time that an incident happened in which his elder brother and father took part. His father’s ship was home in England and John and Philip, then a midshipman in the Royal Navy were in London on their own and wanting to find some particular place, were standing together at a corner of a street studying a map of London when someone came up and looked over their shoulders, it was their father; he must have been amused.

When John was about 13 his grandmother made up her mind to come and live in Australia; her husband Governor King died in England and is buried at Tooting; she brought her grandson out with her and I fancy his school education ended then; for there were many boys to educate and schools were not plentiful in Australia at that date; your grandfather, John King always spoke of his grandmother with great affection and respect, she must have been a woman of strong character; only one thing I remember his telling about the voyage was that after leaving England she began to make a net like a fishing net and stopping at a port which I think must have been somewhere in the Canaries bought a quantity of oranges and fastening the net to the ceiling of the cabin filled it with the oranges. Those were not the days when ships carried fresh meat and vegetables. There is not much to record of the next few years when John King led with his brothers a country life in Australia, native cat hunting, riding came into their pastimes as will be shown from small incidents; one smaller brother being set on an old horse to take messages, the old stager used quietly to reach his head out till he had dragged the reins out of the lad’s hands, when he would turn round and carry his unwilling and helpless rider home. During some part of his residence in N.S.W. your grandfather learnt boat sailing, whether in Sydney Harbour or the coast farther north is not known; but he used to relate how on one occasion sailing a small boat and beating against the wind, time after time she “missed stays” (?) or would not go about, and at last accidentaly (sic) found that by stepping forward his weight in the bows made the difference and she payed off; on reaching home he found his father had been waching (sic) his endeavours with a glass from the shore.

It will be remembered that the convict system was in force in N.S.W. at this time and many of the labourers farm hands were convicts. Some of those of course were law abiding people sent out in those days for a trivial, perhaps a political, offence; but some were notoriously desperate characters; and in many cases these took to a life of lawlessness and became bushrangers. At the age of 17 John King was sent up the country to manage a farm of his father’s. It was here that his encounter with the notorious Jackie Jackie took place. John King was sitting one day near his hut when a big partially intoxicated man appeared at the door and demanded a horse, which request was naturally refused at first, till the information that he was Jackie and armed was grasped. There was no help for it so your grandfather had to get his horses and supply the miscreant; but after he was mounted got his own horse and followed at a little distance; presently the tipsy bushranger fell off; this was the opportunity and first driving the horses away John King rode off for the police and the man was taken; it was found that he had just come from murdering an old man, by pelting him with empty bottle on a drunken bout. A short time after however Jackie escaped and then for some weeks your grandfather’s life was in danger, for the bushranger kept sending him messages that he was coming to shoot him; a nice situation for a lad of 17; for it must be remembered that many of the servants of those days were convicts and perhaps sympathisers with the bushrangers; for six weeks John King was never far away from his loaded gun; he kept one at each end of the furrow when ploughing. However at the end of that time the bushranger was retaken and in due course hanged.

While in N.S. Wales John lived for some time where Lake George is now, and has often told how he used to ride over it realizing then that at one time it must have been full of water. Some 25 or 30 years after when in Gippsland he met a young man who came over from Lake George district with cattle and mentioning that he had often ridden over the bed of the Lake, the young fellow could not believe it; he knew it as a lake about 18 miles long with fish and a cream launch on it. The photos in the Mairburn hall were taken by the Sydney Observatory authorities and given to your grandfather in return for information about Lake George as he knew it, somewhere about 1840.

About this time the great two years drought occurred in N.S. Wales; grass and even grain were very scarce and dear, people were looking for new country where there was grass for their stock; and on account of Mr Holt of Sydney John King made his first journey across the border of N.S. Wales into Victoria and down into Gippsland, then an almost unknown country. Angus Macmillan was the first to discover which was separated from N.S.W. by a chain of mountains and Melbourne by a dense forest; from one of these mts could be seen a fertile country well watered open forest land & plain, and into this country one year in the forties came John King with a carpenter and black boy, the former to build him a hut, the latter as general factotum. This same black boy used to climb a tree in the evenings and when asked what for, said “To see the warrigals (black fellows) fires”; there is no doubt they would have been his enemies, and yet he was more stable than the white carpenter, who after about 6 weeks came to his master and said he could not stay longer, he was too frightened to work for fear of the blacks, and back to N.S.W. he went leaving J. K. alone in the bush with his aborigine companion.

I think the first settlement was at Fulham now called Rayshaw, which at that time they called Barney’s Plains; then Snakes Ridge was taken up as a squattage and comprised The Ridge proper, Nambrok, “Old Rosedale” (now Toongabbie) and Sydney Cottage. Part time he was the managing partner with Mr John Reeve, a Londoner, and part time managed for a syndicate in Sydney; Messrs Mort, Lucas Tooth, Croft. In 1866 the property was divided and John King buying the part of the ridge near Bald Hill and extending across the plain to Heyfield and Denison.

He married Mary Anne Peck, sister of Mrs Hedley of Port Albert and Dr Ffloyd Peck of Sale; she died in England in 1863. And in /64 he married again Antoinette Stratinus Gehle, daughter of Dr Gehle, pastor of the Dutch Church, Austin Friars, City of London. On first taking up land, sheep were the main flock but after some years experience, the losses were so large through footrot that they were exchanged for cattle, which for many years were sent to Tasmania via Port Albert; being waded on to small schooners; John King built the first yards at the Port to receive the cattle. For some years, in fact till the railway came, most heavy goods came by ship to Port Albert; later there was a passenger steamer through the Lakes Entrance, but until the completion of the present entrance according to Sir John Coode, and plan the natural entrance, further east was sometimes silted up for weeks. A few buggies were driven over the Melbourne track, it could hardly be called a road in those days, but the coach was with Cobb & Co., coaches was begun about 1875 or 76. It left Bourke St at one o’clock and arrived in Sale the next day at varying times according to the state of the roads; sometimes 12 in winter, three or four hours later. The worst stages of the road were traversed at night, all about Warragul and Drouin it was a track through red mud up to the axles with a dense wall of scrub on either side, and often the passengers would have to walk with one of the coach lamps while the coach ploughed alongside. When gold was carried there was an escort of police and one had to apply to the banker in charge to travel with the escort; also they stopped at night on the road. John King was the first member of Parliament for Gippsland in the Legislative Assembly; he was also the first J.P. to sit on the bench with a P.M. who came from Melbourne to hold a court at P. Albert. Riding 50 miles through the bush with a friend at the request of the magistrate on coming into view of the court house he said that gentleman waiting impatiently outside and was greeted with the rem “You are 5 min late”. Gentlemen. He took a great interest in the affairs of Rosedale and was a member of the Shire Council from /75 till leaving the district about /84, and was President in /77. The Anglican Church of St Mark was the work of himself and his brother.


John King was born at Parramatta in 1820; his father a Capt in the Navy, his Grandfather first Governor of Norfolk Island, later the third Governor of N.S.W. He was educated first in Launceston Cornwall near his maternal uncle’s home Mr John Lethbridge, and later at Greenwich. Coming back to Australia when about 14 or 15, at the age of 17 he was in charge of a farm of his father’s. About 1842 during a bad drought in N.S.W. he came to Gippsland and eventually settled at the Ridge near Rosedale (Snakes Ridge). He was the managing partner of a firm comprising Mr Thos. Holt, Mr Croft and Mr Lucas Tooth of Sydney. Mr John Reeve later of Wimbledon, London, was part owner. In 1866 the property was divided, Mr King retaining what is now know as Nambrok (aboriginal for big plain). About 1852 he married Miss Mary Anne Peck sister of Dr Peck of Sale and the first Mrs Hedley of Port Albert. She died in 1863, and later Mr King married Miss Antoinette Gehle, a daughter of Dr Gehle, the pastor of the Lutheran Church of Austin Friars, London. There were 5 children, two sons and three daughters. Mr King was a pastoralist and always took a great interest in his country’s affairs, and was Gippsland’s first representative in Parliament. In the 50s cattle were shipped by schooner from Port Albert to Tasmania, and he built the first yards at the Port. He with others helped to provide Sale with its first Church and was one of the first guardians. In Rosedale later Mr King was for many years in the Shire Council and was the prime mover in building the Anglican Church there. About 1885, the heavy tax on landed property induced him to sell the Station, and he with his family retired to Metung on the Gippsland Lakes. Here he amused himself with an extensive garden and yachting, doubtless an inherited taste. His eldest son Philip Gidley married Octavia Dawson of Rosedale and the second one John Henry married Miss Rachel Thompson.

APPENDIX 3 – Letter from Anna Maria Peck née Robertson to her mother describing the journey from Tarraville to Sale dated 4th November, 1858- extracts

But I must tell you something of our journey and arrival. Dear – was most anxious about us and our journey, especially so when she found that we and our belongings would not arrive at the same time. She and Dr Hedley both wished us to remain another week and send our bedding and other things to await us, but we had packed and made up our minds to start, and so with provision of sandwiches, fresh eggs and a bundle of rhubarb, we breakfasted at six o’clock on Saturday morning and walked to Tarraville Hotel where the American coach was to pick us up at seven o’clock.

It is an open conveyance with black waterproof on top and curtains let down and very strong springs, and holds twelve people three on each seat. A friend and neighbour of F—s, W. Lightfoot, to whom I had been introduced the previous day, packed us in, I and the four children occupying the back seat, which had the leather curtains fastened around – Ann being there before us.

The roads were worse than driving over ploughed fields; in one part we were jerked rapidly over the trunks of trees laid close together to mend the road, which led through the bush or forest, and when one track becomes too much cut up they make another winding in and out the trees most wonderfully.

Every now and then one expected to stick fast in the mud, but Laura and Jenny, Dick and Sulky were each in turn, or all at once called upon to “get up”, and we went on without accident or misadventure until we reached the first stage fourteen miles off Tarraville, where the horses were rested.

We alighted and had some tea with some of the sandwiches. Poor A- had been very sick the last few miles, but her seat was outside and she managed to be no trouble.

Bruthen’s Creek, where we stopped, is a pretty trickling waterfall, a great pleasure to us all; the children found quantities of wild clematis and wreathed it about their hats and had no lack of amusement the two hours we stopped there.

The next stage was a long one, and was to end the day. It is called the Traveller’s Rest, and is twenty-two miles from the last stage, where Mrs – had given me a bottle of milk for the children.

An exclamation drew my attention to the fact that a bullock dray seemed stuck in a creek before, and I was rather startled to find that we had to drive down one steep bank and through the creek and up another. But it was so, and it seemed done so easily, and the horses were so beautifully managed, that after that I thought no more of passing a creek than of driving close to the trees.

After passing the creek we came upon a most lovely little clearing, and there stopped to have a picnic dinner. W. Lightfoot having a box with a leg of mutton, bread, butter, water, brandy.

After this came a succession of creeks. We were getting very tired of the jolting and shaking, but the later part of the way was lovely with shrubs and flowers in bloom; shrubs having white blossoms, flowers of all hues, blue, pink, yellow, deep orange, lilac and red. I was very glad on arriving at the rest, rooms ready for us and a cheerful fire…

The part of the hotel!!!! we occupied was recently built, and was like a cottage with a verandah in front covered with roses… A very pretty garden which sloped down to Merriman’s Creek by name, and the flowers were looking lovely. The roses in full bloom and sweet peas out and cactuses coming into bloom and vegetables in a forward state…

We started again before eight in the morning and in due time reached Hill Top, a large Inn, where the horses rested previous to crossing the morass which is the great difficulty in the journey. A bridge begins the way, but we stuck fast as the first plunge into the morass, and after a few ineffectual efforts to drag the vehicle out from which most of the passengers had alighted, there was only one horse that would attempt to pull.

One of the leaders lay down and was with difficulty induced to get up, and the two shaft horses trembled violently, and could neither be led or driven to pull. At last they made one more fruitless effort, and the leader again lay down, and one of the shaft horses also.

Some bullock drays were passing, and four bullocks were detached to drag us out; but it was grievous to see how the poor horses had to be flogged to make them rise and get out of the way. Ffloyd had arrived on horseback to meet us, having learnt at Sale, where he had ridden to church that we were on the road up…

A number of people on horseback had assembled, and many assisted but the four bullocks soon settled the matter and dragged us in a very short space through the worst part, and now one more difficulty remained which was the Punt Lane.

There was a long consultation how some dreadfully wet place was to be crossed. At last we drove completely into the water and went along satisfactorily until we came to the root of a tree which caught one wheel.

Two gentlemen were riding through to point the best way, and at last the horses managed to get the wheel over the root and then we were soon through the water and all difficulties were over, and we rattled into Sale at a great pace, and drove to the principal Inn, disturbing the congregations assembled for church. ..

Mutton is scarcer than beef and dearer: 6d per of, beef 4d.

Flour is the dearest thing 4d per lb.

Source: O.S. Green (1979) Sale, the Early Years and Later. Sale, Vic. Southern Newspapers. pp.25-26.

APPENDIX 4 -Life of Michael Minter (1807–1864) of Folkestone

[The following text, originally written in Latin by Michael Minter, was translated by a Dr Neild1. My mother, Margaret Connell née Peck, said a copy of this translation was found in a family house in Lakes Entrance in the 1940s. This would mean at either Sea Shell or The Crib, the holiday houses at the New Works of Rosa Phillips née Minter and Ada Peck née Minter respectively. Other copies of the translation may exist with further family members.]

I was born on the 12th day of January in the year 1807 at Flushing [Vlissingen], a city of Holland, my parents being English, who for several years resided in Batavia [Latin name for the Low Countries]. Like my parents, I was a member of the Anglican church. When I arrived at the age at which boys begin to learn the rudiments, I had a German master appointed to teach me, but I cannot say that he taught me more than to read and spell a little, for when, afterward quite a little boy, I came with my parents to England and was placed in a public school, the recollection even of that later time has nearly passed from my mind. The public school was in St. Margaret’s parish not far from Dover2. There during two years, under properly qualified masters I was taught the English language and the rudiments of Latin with other subjects. But at this school they taught only the elements of education, my parents determined that I should not remain there any longer, so they placed me under the care of a very learned man, who then kept a private academy at Newmarket in the county of Cambridge3. Under this gentleman, during two years I was trained in the Greek and Latin tongues, but desiring still to better things in those subjects I went to a little town in Kent named Elham, where there was a clergyman, a most accomplished man and a perfect master of ancient literature who perfected me in its knowledge4. If I know anything of classics it is to him I am indebted for the knowledge, for he applied himself in the process of instruction both with learning and diligence.

But having reached my sixteenth year I considered that I should hesitate no longer in making choice of a profession. Since I was a boy I had always had an inclination in the direction of medicine and to this study, therefore I now devoted myself with all possible assiduity. My parents favoured my wishes and as is the custom in England, I was, in 1822, bound apprentice to Dr. Peck, a very able man who practiced in the neighbourhood of Newmarket. Two years afterwards in order that I might study the pharmacopoeia properly I was received as a pupil at the Surrey dispensary. Subsequently I joined the classes at St. Thomas’ Hospital where I studied anatomy and afterwards Obstetrics, chemistry and medicine in Guy’s Hospital studying variously in either hospital under teachers whose names I am proud to mention, namely Cooper, Key, Morgan, Green, South, Blundell, Bostock, Bright, and Row, all of whom I need hardly say are illustrious in the annals of medicine ---

Afterwards having returned to Newmarket I was assistant to Mr. Peck for a while. Then I again went to London and studied Botany, Chemistry, Anatomy, Surgery and Obstetrics until 1827, when I went up for my examination and passed. I was now legally entitled to practice my profession, but nevertheless for some time I acted as dresser in Guy’s Hospital. Everything that I said is true and I have not for the sake of embellishing this narrative introduced any of the flattering testimonials I received from the illustrious medical men under whom I studied.

In June 1829 I began to practice in Whitstable in the county of Kent5, but although I was glad to find myself succeeding, in 1837 I left that place and again repaired to London where I practiced for eighteen months. Folkestone in Kent was my next place of residence and here up to this time I have exercised my art, enjoying the confidence and respect of my patients.

Written at Folkestone on the 20th day of January 1845.

Signed: Michael Minter

APPENDIX 5 – The Hedley/ Peck/ Minter Emigrants – two generations

George Dixon HEDLEY b. Abt 1817, Camberwell, London; c. 9 Jul 1817, St Giles Church, Camberwell; d. 14 Mar 1879, Cuninghame Street, Sale, Victoria, Australia.

George m(1).
Ann Elizabeth Hawes PECK 22 Sep 1842, St Mary's Church, Newmarket, Suffolk. Ann (daughter of Robert James PECK and Sarah Minter) b. 11 Nov 1822, St Mary Newmarket, Suffolk; c. 15 Jan 1823, St Mary Newmarket, Suffolk; d. 26 Jun 1854, Tarraville, Victoria, Australia.


Agatha Mary HEDLEY b. Bef 25 Jan 1844, Bedford, Bedfordshire; c. 25 Jan 1844, St Peter's Church, Bedford, Bedfordshire; d. 6 May 1922, Pinjarra, Western Australia, Australia.

Agatha m.
Alexander SMITH 18 Apr 1865, Christ Church, Tarraville, Victoria, Australia. Alexander (son of John Davison SMITH and Caroline Birch GRAY) b. 12 Apr 1838, Norwood, London; c. 23 May 1838, St Luke, Norwood, London; d. 23 Jan 1918, Bankside, Waroona, West Australia.

George Robert HEDLEY b. Bef 29 May 1847, Bedford, Bedfordshire; c. 29 May 1847, St Peter's Church, Bedford, Bedfordshire

Edward HEDLEY b. Bef 12 May 1848, Bedford, Bedfordshire; c. 12 May 1848, St Peter's Church, Bedford, Bedfordshire; d. 1871, Stockyard Creek (Foster), Victoria, Australia.

Emily Ann HEDLEY b. Bef 8 Oct 1849, Bedford, Bedfordshire; c. 8 Oct 1849, St Peter's Church, Bedford, Bedfordshire; d. Bef 1854, Tarraville, Victoria, Australia.

James King HEDLEY b. 1852, Tarraville, Victoria, Australia; d. 1922, Monthey, Switzerland; bur. Montreux, Switzerland.

James (known as King) m(1).
Lizzie McMARTIN 9 May 1880, Eureka, Eureka County, Nevada, USA. Lizzie (daughter of Alex McMARTIN and Kate UNKNOWN) b. Abt 1860, California, USA

James m(2). Eleanor RODGERS 6 Jun 1884, Church of the Transfiguration, New York City, USA. Eleanor (daughter of James Rodgers, Esq. of Birmingham, England and Catharine Rand) d. 2 Jul 1918, New York, USA.

James m(3).
Mary Harris EDMONDS 8 Nov 1902, Christ Church, Streatham, London. Mary (daughter of John EDMONDS) b. Jun 1859, St James, London; d. 11 Jul 1946, Newquay, Cornwall.

William Arthur HEDLEY b. 1853, Tarraville, Victoria, Australia; d. 8 Mar 1854, Tarraville, Victoria, Australia.

George m(2).
Mary Briarly ROBERTSON 8 Jan 1856, Prahran, Victoria, Australia. Mary (daughter of Charles John Robertson and Mary née Briarly) b. 31 Mar 1815, Kirton in Lindsey, Lincolnshire; d. 14 Jan 1890, Sale, Victoria, Australia.


Charles Dixon HEDLEY b. 1857, Tarraville, Victoria, Australia; d. 1899, Grafton, NSW, Australia.

Charles m.
Jane A CREER, Grafton, NSW (Known as Jennie. Daughter of Edward Creer, Esq. of Grafton).


John KING b. 9 Jan 1820, Parramatta, NSW, Australia; d. 24 Jan 1895, Chislehurst, Hawksburn, Australia.

John m(1).
Mary Anne PECK 20 Jan 1853, Rosedale, Victoria, Australia. Mary Anne (daughter of Robert James PECK and Sarah Minter) b. 9 Apr 1824, St Mary Newmarket, Suffolk; c. 2 Jun 1824, St Mary Newmarket, Suffolk; d. 22 Aug 1863, 4 Lansdowne Place, Plymouth, Devon.


Philip Gidley KING b. 9 Dec 1853, Snake's Ridge, Rosedale, Gippsland, Victoria, Australia; d. 1931, Australia.

Philip m.
Octavia Charlotte DAWSON

Anna Josepha KING b. 1856, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. Apr 1943, Bairnsdale, Victoria, Australia.

Mary KING b. 5 Feb 1858, Snake's Ridge, Rosedale, Gippsland, Victoria, Australia; d. 1 Jul 1858, Sale, Victoria, Australia.

Robert Essington KING) b. 28 Aug 1859, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. 2 Mar 1860, Sale, Victoria, Australia.

Menie Agatha KING b. 1860, Victoria, Australia; d. Oct 1941, Bairnsdale, Victoria, Australia.

John m(2).
Antoinette Stratenus GEHLE 27 Oct 1864, St Mary Abbots Church, Kensington, London, England. Antoinette (daughter of Rev. Henrik GEHLE and Anne Minter) b. Jun 1845, Highgate, London; d. 26 Aug 1925, Bairnsdale, Victoria, Australia.


John Henry KING b. 14 Oct 1865, Nambrok, Gippsland, Victoria, Australia; d. Jan 1957, Bairnsdale, Victoria, Australia.

John m.
Rachel THOMPSON, died 1947.

Margaret Antoinette KING b. 1866, Nambrok, Gippsland, Victoria, Australia; d. 1887, Royal Park, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.


James PECK b. 29 Jun 1833, Newmarket, Suffolk; c. 13 Jul 1833, St Mary Newmarket, Suffolk; d. 17 Sep 1884, Sale, Victoria, Australia.

James m.
Ada Minter 22 Mar 1864, Trinity Church, Barrabool Hills, Victoria, Australia. Ada (daughter of Michael Minter and Eleanor Edmonds JEFFERY) b. 12 Jul 1846, Cheriton, Kent; c. 27 Sep 1846, Folkestone, St Mary and St Eanswyth, Kent; d. 12 Jun 1918, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; bur. Sale Cemetery, Sale, Victoria, Australia.


Sarah Eleanor PECK b. 8 Oct 1865, Nambrok, Gippsland, Victoria, Australia; d. 6 Jan 1866, Mt Moriac, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

James Floyd PECK b. 28 Apr 1867, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. 27 Aug 1869, Sale, Victoria, Australia.

Ada Marie "Menie" PECK b. 2 Oct 1868, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. 20 Jan 1869, Sale, Victoria, Australia.

Robert Ffloyd Minter PECK b. 9 Sep 1870, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. 22 Nov 1887, Forest-Vale, Queensland, Australia.

James Arthur PECK b. 1 Jan 1873, Bowarett, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. 19 Aug 1944, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

James m.
Ada Mary LLOYD 14 Apr 1909, St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne, Australia. Ada (daughter of Thomas Lloyd and Grace née Jack) b. 18 Aug 1872, Stratford, Victoria, Australia; d. 20 Aug 1953, Mosman, New South Wales, Australia.

Martha Woutrina "Mena" PECK b. 1 Apr 1874, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. 1966, Croydon, Victoria, Australia.

Martha, known as Mena, m.
Francis Ernest HORNIDGE in 1894

Tom Oswald PECK b. 22 Jul 1876, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. 24 Aug 1950, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Tom m.
Isabella GILLOM 25 Jan 1905, Puriri, New Zealand. Isabella d. 9 Jul 1944.

Hubert Octavius "Octy" PECK b. 22 Feb 1880, Bowarett, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. 22 Apr 1952, Gunnedah, NSW, Australia.

Hubert m. 22 June 1910 Melbourne.
Kate Gertrude "Kit" COX Kate b. 20 Oct 1888, Yerong Creek, NSW, Australia; d. 20 Jun 1960, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Ella Gwendoline PECK b. 9 Jun 1881, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. 8 Oct 1949, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Emily Irene Ada PECK b. 20 Oct 1882, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. 16 Feb 1934, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Emily, known as Irene or Rene, m.
Arthur Herbert NETHERCOTE 1905, Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. Arthur b. 1880, Moe, Victoria, Australia; d. 1905, Sale, Victoria, Australia.

Flora Sybella Clay PECK b. 17 Nov 1883, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. Dec 1971, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Flora, known as Ila, m.
Thomas Anketell BLAIR 18 Jun 1913, Australia. Thomas d. 12 Aug 1973, Australia.


Ffloyd Minter PECK b. 20 Apr 1820, Newmarket, Suffolk; c. 26 Aug 1820, St Mary Newmarket, Suffolk; d. 7 Jan 1864, Sale, Victoria, Australia.

Ffloyd m(1).
Anna Maria ROBERTSON 17 Mar 1847, Episcopal District Chapel of St Peter, Hammersmith, London. Anna (daughter of Charles John Robertson (1779-1834) and Mary née Briarly) b. 2 Dec 1823, Eton, Buckinghamshire; d. 1 May 1859, Grassdale, Sale, Victoria, Australia.


Mary PECK b. 28 Jan 1848, Newmarket, Suffolk; d. 30 Apr 1929, East St Kilda, Victoria, Australia.

Annie PECK b. 23 Dec 1850, Newmarket, Suffolk; d. 1929, Carlton, Victoria, Australia.

Annie m.
George Hanna CHOMLEY 27 Apr 1870, Sale, Victoria, Australia. George (son of Rev Francis Chomley of Wicklow, Ireland) b. Abt 1838, Ireland; d. 1921, Clare, South Australia, Australia.

Alice Henrietta PECK b. 27 Dec 1851, Newmarket, Suffolk; d. 1 Sep 1927, Hove, Sussex, England.

Alice m.
Hickman MOLESWORTH 15 Jun 1882, St Paul's Church, Sale, Victoria, Australia. Hickman (son of Sir Robert Molesworth and Henrietta née Johnston) b. 23 Feb 1842, Dublin, Ireland; d. 18 Jul 1907, On board RMS Omrah; bur. Boroondara Cemetery, Kew, Victoria, Australia.

Charles James PECK b. 14 Oct 1853, Newmarket, Suffolk; d. 30 Jan 1893, Sale, Victoria, Australia.

Henry Floyd Rutherford PECK b. 7 Feb 1857, Newmarket, Suffolk; d. 9 May 1915, Worton, East Malvern, Victoria, Australia.

Henry m. Caroline Mary ALLAN 4 Dec 1879, Sale, Victoria. Caroline b. ca 1854. d Sep 1942 Balaclava, Melbourne, Vic.

Emily Frances PECK b. 18 Apr 1859, Grassdale, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. 1927, St Kilda, Victoria, Australia.

Emily m.
Peter Charles MACARTHUR Dec 1884, St Paul’s, Sale, Victoria.

Ffloyd m(2).
Menie CAMPBELL 15 Aug 1860, Clyde Bank, Gipps Land, Victoria, Australia. Menie (daughter of Duncan Campbell (1792 - 1874), Rockside, Kilchoman parish, Isle of Islay, Argyll, Scotland and Catherine Macgregor) b. 1820, Kilchoman, Isle of Islay, Argyll, Scotland; d. 28 Jun 1887, Islay Cottage, Sale, Gippsland, Victoria.


Michael Minter b. 12 Jan 1807, Vlissingen (Flushing), Holland; c. 1807, Folkestone, Kent; d. 31 Jan 1864, Mt Moriac, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; bur. Mt Moriac Cemetery, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Michael m(1).
Sarah BALDOCK 17 May 1831, Herne, Kent. Sarah (daughter of Richard Hobday BALDOCK) d. 10 Aug 1841, Folkestone, Kent.

Michael m(2).
Eleanor Edmonds JEFFERY 27 Sep 1842, Folkestone, Kent. Eleanor (daughter of James JEFFERY and Rebekah) b. 7 Jan 1821, Kent; c. 4 Feb 1821, Cheriton, Kent; d. 9 Apr 1875, Oaklands, Bairnsdale, Victoria, Australia.


Michael Minter b. 20 Jul 1843, Folkestone, Kent; c. 27 Sep 1843, Folkestone, SS Mary & Eanswyth, Kent; d. 9 Jul 1897, Tatura, Victoria, Australia; bur. 12 Jul 1897, Murchison Cemetery, Victoria, Australia.

Michael m.
Emma CUNNINGHAME 27 May 1867, St Andrew's Church, Brighton, Victoria, Australia. Emma (daughter of Robert Charles Cuninghame (sic) and Emma Lampard) b. abt 1845, Sale, Victoria, Australia; d. 12 Feb 1924, 11 Darling Street, S Yarra, Victoria, Australia; bur. 13 Feb 1924, St Kilda Cemetery, Victoria, Australia.

Ella Minter b. 29 Sep 1844, Folkestone, Kent; c. 18 Oct 1844, Folkestone, SS Mary & Eanswyth, Kent; d. 15 Jul 1902, Forest Vale, Queensland, Australia; bur. Mitchell General Cemetery, Queensland, Australia.

Ella m.
Robert Copland LETHBRIDGE 9 Apr 1863, Trinity Church, Barrabool, Victoria, Australia. Robert (son of Robert Copland LETHBRIDGE and Mary KING) b. 11 Sep 1838, Werrington, Penrith, NSW, Australia; d. 31 Oct 1919, Forest Vale, Queensland, Australia; bur. Mitchell General Cemetery, Queensland, Australia.

Ada Minter b. 12 Jul 1846, Cheriton, Kent; c. 27 Sep 1846, Folkestone, St Mary and St Eanswyth, Kent; d. 12 Jun 1918, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; bur. Sale Cemetery, Sale, Victoria, Australia.

Ada m.
James PECK 22 Mar 1864, Trinity Church, Barrabool Hills, Victoria, Australia. James (son of Robert James PECK and Sarah Minter) b. 29 Jun 1833, Newmarket, Suffolk; c. 13 Jul 1833, St Mary Newmarket, Suffolk; d. 17 Sep 1884, Sale, Victoria, Australia.

Rosa Minter b. 1 Feb 1848, Folkestone, Kent; c. 1 Jun 1848, Folkestone, SS Mary & Eanswyth, Kent; d. 31 Jul 1936, Malvern, Victoria, Australia.

Rosa m.
William Pitt PHILLIPS 13 Jan 1870, St Jude's, Carlton, Victoria, Australia. William (son of Charles PHILLIPS and Louisa HARPER) b. 10 Aug 1842, Newmarket, Suffolk; d. 11 May 1924, Armadale, Victoria, Australia.

John Holman Minter b. Abt 1852, Mt Moriac, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; d. 1853, Mt Moriac, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; bur. 24 Sep 1853, Mt Moriac Cemetery, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Flora Minter b. 1 Jun 1854, Mt Moriac, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; d. 1933, Armadale, Victoria, Australia.

Flora m.
William Hardinge GREGSON 15 Apr 1879, St Paul's, Sale, Gipps Land, Victoria, Australia. William (son of John GREGSON and Fanny Ann HARDINGE) b. Abt 1857; d. 1926, Dromana, Victoria, Australia.

Ellen Minter b. 11 May 1856, Mt Moriac, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; d. 1919, Albert Park, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Ellen m.
Alfred Emanuel "Teddy" OTTER 14 Oct 1879, Trinity Church, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Alfred b. Abt 1836; d. 20 Mar 1920, Albert Park, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

John Holman Minter b. 31 Oct 1857, Mt Moriac, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; d. 1858, Victoria, Australia; bur. 24 Mar 1858, Mt Moriac Cemetery, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Ffloyd Minter b. 22 Mar 1859, Mt Moriac, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; d. 1 Jan 1860, Victoria, Australia; bur. 4 Jan 1860, Mt Moriac Cemetery, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Jeffery Minter b. 18 Jun 1863, Mt Moriac, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; d. Bef 30 Jul 1863, Victoria, Australia; bur. 30 Jul 1863, Mt Moriac Cemetery, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

1 Believed to be Dr James Edward Neild (1824-1906), a forensic pathologist, medical educator and medical librarian who migrated from England to Australia in 1853. His broad interests in theatre, literature, plus his active involvement in organisations such as the Royal Society of Victoria (Hon. Librarian), the Medical Society of Victoria and the Victorian Medical Benevolent Association (Hon Sec), suggest he is the sort of person with whom Michael Minter would have had a rapport and quite possibly have known. Certainly as a doctor, Dr Neild would have known Latin, and would therefore have been someone to whom Eleanor or one of the children may have turned to translate a document in Latin found after Michael’s death. The location of Michael’s original Latin text is unknown, if indeed it is still extant.

2 Probably St Margarets at Cliffe where the Parish Council website records: “The census of 1821 showed 87 houses and a population of 613, including over a hundred boys at Dr Temple’s Academy.” ( ).

3 It seems most likely that Michael boarded in Newmarket with the Rev. T.J. Abbott whose advertisement in the Bury and Norwich Post of 14 July 1813 read: ” TWELVE YOUNG GENTLEMEN are genteelly boarded and carefully instructed in the Greek, Latin and English Languages, with Merchants' Accounts, Geography, the Use of the Globes, &c. By the Rev. T. J. ABBOTT, Rectory House, Newmarket”.

4 The Anglican Vicar of St Mary’s Elham from 1778 to 1828 was the Revd William Cornwallis, a graduate of Merton College, Oxford University. William Cornwallis was at the same time Rector of Wittersham, also in Kent. The Cornwallises were an erudite household. William’s wife, Mary Cornwallis (née Harris) was a well-known interpreter of scripture, publishing her four volume Observations, Critical, Explanatory, and Practical, on the Canonical Scriptures in 1817. The Cornwallis’ younger daughter, Caroline Frances Cornwallis, a scholar and author on a wide range of subjects, was an ardent advocate of higher education for women. She learnt Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and German, and acquired some knowledge of philosophy, natural and social science, history, theology, law, and politics.

5 On 14 May 1831 at Herne, Kent, Michael Minter married Sarah Baldock, daughter of Richard Hobday Baldock, esq. of Whitstable. Sarah died on 10 August 1841 of consumption. At Elham, Kent, on 27 September 1842 Michael married Eleanor Edmonds Jeffery, daughter of James and Rebecca Jeffery. While practicing at Whitstable, Michael took as apprentice his nephew, John Moolenburgh Minter, later to become Hon. Surgeon to the Prince of Wales, and Hon. Physician to Queen Victoria.